Technology and Process Adoption

Technology and Process Adoption (TAPA) is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, societal understanding, and local knowledge to address a physical need that serves the user of innovation. ARI increases operability, sustainability, and functionality of engineered projects, systems, and operations by identifying and addressing the unique context in which they reside, and optimize the impact of place, people, and time on its development and use with TAPA.


TAPA uses a tested methodology to identify place-based conditions and values that are critical to adoption, maintenance, and sustainability of a technology or process. By interacting with a user population, learning from them about what is important to them and what practices conflict with their experience and identity, TAPA can assess the potential for design conflicts that would make an innovation undesirable. The methodology focuses on five key characteristics that determine the likelihood of comfort with a design, allowing designers to focus on features that harmonize the relationship between product and user.

ARI researchers Alexandra Timmons (foreground) and Ann-Perry Witmer (on left) visit residents of Janko Kollo accompanied by FIEA engineer Xiomara Echeverria to learn more about indigenous practices and community technical needs.
ARI researcher Alexandra Timmons (foreground) visits residents of Janko Kollo accompanied by FIEA engineer Xiomara Echeverria to learn more about local practices and community technical needs.

Focus Areas

Organizational Dynamics 

TAPA explores not only the physical conditions and predispositions of users, but also considers the motivations, expectations, and interactions of parties in an organizational setting to identify mismatches, communication deficits, and implicit biases and assumptions that can adversely affect organizational dynamics. Drawing upon the TAPA levels of perception, we work with parties to assist in bringing everyone to an assimilative view, which allows them to understand others’ assertions without the filter of their own experience. 

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Globalization of Operations, Technology, and Product Development 

As the boundaries and borders of the world continue to yield to the attraction of markets and trade, a global awareness becomes more critical to functioning in the 21st century. TAPA assists businesses and designers in identifying and incorporating culturally distinct conditions and needs to encourage collaboration between societies of different experience and knowledge. 

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Engineered Infrastructure 

An infrastructure by definition serves a collection of people, not all of whom share the same needs, capabilities, and expectations. TAPA assists in identifying the features of an infrastructure that best aligns with the majority of the user population while acknowledging dissenting identities and objectives.

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Alignment of user context with an innovation before and during design will strengthen the relationship between product/process and user while incorporating the unique capabilities, knowledge, and skills of the user population produce a more effective and sustainable outcome. Particularly when working with diverse designers and users who come from different background, experiences, and objectives, TAPA mitigates the challenges of matching a product or process with the user group for which it is intended.


Contact Us

To learn more about working with this group, please contact Nicole Johnson, Managing Director of ARI.

Our Team

Staff Research Engineer